Counselling in learning is, in this case, talking about a particular method of learning which is a variation of Suggestopedia, the procedure developed by the Bulgarian Psychiatrist-Educator Georgi Lozanov,
Suggestopedia derives from Suggestology which Lozaov describes as a science concerned with the systemic study of the non-rational and non-conscious influences that human beings are constantly responding to; Suggestopedia tries to harness these influences and redirect them so as to optimise learning (Stevick, E.W. 1976).
Lozanov acknowledges ties in tradition to Yoga and Soviet Psychology; from Raja-Yoga, Lozanov has borrowed and modified techniques for altering states of consciousness and concentration and the use of rhythmic breathing. From Soviet Psychology Lozanov has taken the notion that all students can be taught a given subject matter at the same level of skills.
Suggestopedia is based on the assumption that atten-tiveness may be manipulated to optimise learning and recall. Memorisation in learning by the Suggestopedic method seems to be accelerated twenty-five times over that in learning by using conventional methods.
Lozanov believes most learning takes place in a relaxed but focused state and he recommends home study or recordings of "whole meaningful texts" as acts of communication (Lozanov, G. 1972).
Suggestion is at the heart of Suggestopedia and it means that the learner learns not only consciously from the effect of direct instruction, but also unconsciously from environmental suggestions. The kind of activities that are more original to Suggestopedia are the listening activities often with a musical background: the students first look at and discuss a new text with the teacher, then they listen to the teacher's voice or to an audio cassette while they relax comfortably, often in reclining chairs arranged in a circle, and breathe deeply to activate their unconscious learning system.
According to Lozanov, the mental state of the learners is critical to success and they must immerse themselves in the procedures of the method and maintain a pseudo-passive state, in which the material rolls over and through them.
Materials consist of direct support materials, primarily text and tape and a particular technique known as the Seance or Concert Session in which the teacher listens to the music coming from a tape-recorder and begins to read or recite the new text, his voice modulated in harmony with the musical phrases, while the students first follow the text in their text- books and then close their textbooks and listen to the teacher's reading. They are not told to do any homework on the lesson, except for reading it once before going to bed and again before getting up in the morning (Lozanov, G. 1978).
1In Richards J.C. - Rodgers. T.S. 1999, pp. 142-153.
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