The Process of Learning
The knowledge of the process of
learning is the basis to understand and use personal potential in life to
achieve positive results in all careers, both at school and work; a constructive
comparison, by exchanging reciprocal experience as a chance of mutual enrichment
in terms of culture and skills, is necessary in life.
Learning is composed of three inseparable stages:
1. Transmission of data to the outside: Transfer or External moment;
2. Reception, Elaboration and Memorization of data: Self Transfer or Internal moment;
3. Transmission of data to the outside: Transfer or External moment.
The learner as a student, worker or performer and the teacher as a source of information, may play different roles according to the three different moments:
1. External moment: The learner is the addressee of the teacher's information whereas the teacher is obviously the addresser1;
2. Internal moment: The learner receives the teacher's information and reacts through elaborating, memorizing and internalising it;
3. External moment: The learner is the transmitter of the information marked by his own personality; the learner becomes addresser whereas the teacher, as a potential audience, becomes the addressee.
Learning may be compared to computer processing:
1. External Moment: Output: Emission of data;
2. Internal Moment: Input: Insertion of data;
3. External Moment: Output: Emission of data;
The three moments are connected together by the communication of information:
1. External Moment: The learner receives communication from others;
2. Internal Moment: The learner communicates within himself;
3. External Moment: The learner communicates with others.
It is important to analyse the three stages of learning.
The teacher, the trainer, the videotape and audiotape are sources of information because they transmit audio-visual data such as voices, sounds, writings, and images. These sources play an active role in learning as they communicate with the learner in an accessible way. For example, the manager's language to explain to his employees the content of economic laws should be suitable to the occasion. So the possibility of the intelligibility of a message depends on the language used by the transmitter, both in form and content and in manner and matter: the language should change according to the features of the audience regarding culture, beliefs, age: major intelligibility gives major understanding.
The communication of the message between the speaker and the listener, or the writer and the reader, occurs when the message is transferred from the addresser to the addressee. The aim of the message is its own transmission.
The communication of the message occurs when the message itself is received in its right meaning:
Meaning of Transmission: A
Meaning of Reception: A.
The communication of the message does not occur when the message itself is not received in its right meaning:
Meaning of Transmission: A
Meaning of Reception: B.
Observing the learner as the addressee of the message is studying his reaction to external information: the learner's behaviour may be characterized by initiative or not. The learner has no initiative when he just receives and accepts information from the transmitter.
The learner's predisposition to receive depends on his willingness and interest in the topic:
Major willingness and interest mean major predisposition to receive;
Minor willingness and interest mean minor predisposition to receive.
When the learner has neither willingness nor interest the message is not received even when it is clear and comprehensible. The teacher can arouse the learner's motivation by joining theory to practice, learning to living: the teacher should teach how to translate school-skills into work-skills and life-skills. The learner may be broad-minded or narrow-minded in his inner acceptance or refusal of the external message,
The learner's inner acceptance or refusal may be disclosed by his posture as the physical manifestation to express broad/narrow-mindedness. The interviewee's head, looking down, and his folded arms may be the display of the rejection of communication: the interviewee does not show his intention of listening to the interviewer as well as his intention of being listened to by the interviewer.
The interviewee's correct posture may be the display of the realization of the communication with the external world: the interviewee shows his assertiveness in his intention of paying attention to the interviewer and of attracting the interviewer's attention. The features of the ideal physical attendance in Counselling are contained in the acronym SOLER: Squarely, Open, Leaning forward, Eye contact and Relaxed (Egan, G. 1998).
The learner has initiative when he elaborates external information by personalizing it.
The learner, as the student, learns or studies in this way:
1. He gathers the external data concerning a particular topic;
2. He selects data;
3. He puts data in a logical, chronological, alphabetical sequence;
4. He associates data for differences or similarities.
The learner memorizes when through the reiteration of a particular subject he can remember it not only for himself but also for others at the right time and place. Learning is completely useless if the learner cannot communicate it both in an oral and written form.-The way of receiving, elaborating and memorizing data depends on the personality of the student and changes according to it. The teacher's message is one for all students but each student receives it differently, by transforming it in connection with his personal knowledge, ability, aptitude, habits and goals.
The learner becomes the addresser of information
when he communicates to an audience the message regarding his memorised learning, received and elaborated. The student has to transmit his message to the teacher to accomplish his daily tasks or to get a good mark in his essays or examinations.
The student's language should be coherent, logical, correct in syntax and if necessary rich in technical words. The teacher's evaluation is based on the student's speech, which determines his positive or negative judgement.
Learning is accomplished and useful when the transferring of information is realized:
External Moment: Transfer to the outside Internal Moment: Self-transfer to the inside External moment : Transfer to the outside Information should not be kept either by the addresser, or by the addressee, but it should be transferred by the addressee who becomes the addresser in his act of transferring the information itself
1 Addresser: the sender of information.
Alessandra d'Epiro Dusmet de Beaulieu
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riservata Alessandra d'Epiro Dusmet de Beaulieu
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